Problems that should be paid attention to when repairing the tensile machine

1. The quality needs should be considered first when repairing the tensile machine.
The difference of the pulling force range determines the different sensors used, which also determines the structure of the pulling machine, but this item has little effect on the price. For general flexible packaging manufacturers, a pull force range of 100N is sufficient. Therefore, it was decided to use a single-arm type. The structure corresponding to the single-arm type is the door type structure, which is suitable for relatively large tension, such as 1T or above. Therefore, flexible packaging manufacturers basically do not need it.

2. The test stroke problem during the maintenance of the tensile machine.

According to the performance and requirements of the flexible packaging film, the stroke is only 600-800mm. If the elongation of the material exceeds 1000%, the stroke 1000 or 1200mm can be selected.

3. Output the result when the tensile machine is repaired.

The test result output result can be arbitrarily set: maximum force value, elongation rate, tensile strength, constant elongation, constant elongation force value, yield strength, elastic modulus, maximum test force 8 items. This can be said to be the most comprehensive result output during microcomputer operation. The products of some foreign manufacturers can generally export these 8 items. Some domestic manufacturers can output 5-6 items, and some manufacturers can only output the maximum force value, the average value, and the minimum value.

Electronic tensile testing machine purchase skills

1. First, consider the need to test the tensile force range of the material.
The difference in the range of tensile force determines the different sensors used, which also determines the structure of the tensile testing machine, but this item has little effect on the price (except for the door type). For general flexible packaging manufacturers, a pulling force range of 100 Newtons is sufficient. Therefore, it was decided to use a single-arm type. The structure corresponding to the single-arm type is the door type structure, which is suitable for relatively large pulling forces, such as one ton or more. Therefore, flexible packaging manufacturers basically do not need it.

Second, the question of the test stroke.

According to the performance and requirements of the flexible packaging film, the stroke is only 600-800mm. If the elongation of the material exceeds 1000%, you can choose a stroke of 1000 or 1200mm.

Three, the standard configuration problem. Three basic configurations of intelligence: host, microcomputer, and printer. If the microcomputer is powerful, you can print directly. It can also be equipped with an ordinary computer. With a computer, you can perform complex data analysis, such as data editing, partial enlargement, adjustable report format, and group style statistical analysis. If equipped with a computer, the manufacturer should add the corresponding control system.

Fourth, output the result.

The test result output result can be arbitrarily set: maximum force value, elongation rate, tensile strength, constant elongation, constant elongation force value, yield strength, elastic modulus, maximum test force 8 items. This can be said to be the most comprehensive result output during microcomputer operation. The products of some foreign manufacturers can generally export these 8 items. Some domestic manufacturers can output 5-6 items, and some manufacturers can only output the maximum force value, the average value, and the minimum value.

5. In terms of experimental items.

Flexible packaging requires a multi-purpose tensile testing machine, that is, with different fixtures, it can do tensile, compression, bending, tearing, shearing, 180-degree peeling, and 90-degree peeling tests. In addition to the above items, there are some high-end tensile machines on the market. Because of their high sensor accuracy (some up to three out of 100,000), they can also test the coefficient of friction.

Six. The main configuration of the product machinery: transmission, there are screw transmission and rack transmission, the former is expensive, used for high precision, high test repeatability; the latter is cheap, used for low precision, low test repeatability. The lead screw plays a decisive role in the measurement of tensile force accuracy. Generally, there are ball screws, trapezoidal screws, and general screws. Among them, the ball screw has the highest accuracy, but its performance depends on the operation of the computer servo system, and the whole set is more expensive. The precision required by flexible packaging, namely 0.5-1% precision, can be achieved by using general lead screws and trapezoidal lead screws. Transmission includes gear transmission and chain transmission. The former is expensive and is used for high precision; the latter is cheap and is used for low precision. The main cost of sensors lies in their lifetime. Photoelectric sensing is one of the more advanced technologies, which can generally be used more than 100,000 times, which can be achieved by imported and domestic joint venture manufacturers.

Seven, test speed.

Some of the equipment on the market is 10~500 mm/min, and some are 0.01~500 mm/min. The former generally uses ordinary speed control systems, which are low in cost and roughness affects the accuracy; the latter uses a servo system, which is expensive and has high accuracy. For flexible packaging companies, it is sufficient to select a servo system and the speed range of 1~500mm/min, so that it will not affect the accuracy and the price is within a reasonable range.

8. Measurement accuracy.

Precision issues, including force measurement accuracy, speed accuracy, deformation accuracy, and displacement accuracy. These accuracy values ​​can reach up to plus or minus 0.5. But for general manufacturers, 1% accuracy is sufficient. In addition, the force resolution can almost reach one hundred thousandths.

Maintenance and maintenance of single digital display spring testing machine

1. The validity period of the spring testing machine’s indication error check once under normal use conditions is one year.
2. When the spring testing machine is in operation, especially when unloading, don’t let go, so as not to produce severe vibration and affect the accuracy of the testing machine.

3. Lubricating oil should be frequently added to the lifting rack of the testing machine and the pressure injection oil cups.

4. After the testing machine is used, the machine clothing should be covered to prevent dust from falling into the machine.

5. In order to protect personal safety, the testing machine should be properly grounded.

What is the status quo of the development of manipulators

An automatic operating device that can imitate certain motion functions of human hands and arms to grasp, transport objects or operate tools according to a fixed program. It can replace the heavy labor of people to realize the mechanization and automation of production, and can operate in harmful environments to protect personal safety. Therefore, it is widely used in machinery manufacturing, metallurgy, electronics, light industry and atomic energy.

The manipulator is mainly composed of hands and movement mechanisms. The hand is a part used to hold a workpiece (or tool). According to the shape, size, weight, material and operation requirements of the object to be grasped, it has a variety of structural forms, such as clamping type, holding type and adsorption type, etc. . The movement mechanism enables the hand to complete various rotations (swings), moves or compound movements to achieve prescribed actions and change the position and posture of the object being grasped. The independent movement methods such as lifting, telescoping, and rotating of the movement mechanism are called the degrees of freedom of the manipulator. In order to grab an object at any position and orientation in space, 6 degrees of freedom are required. The degree of freedom is a key parameter of the robot design. The more degrees of freedom, the greater the flexibility of the manipulator, the wider the versatility, and the more complex its structure. Generally, the dedicated manipulator has 2 to 3 degrees of freedom.

The types of manipulators can be divided into hydraulic, pneumatic, electric, and mechanical manipulators according to the driving mode; according to the scope of application, they can be divided into special manipulators and general manipulators; according to the motion trajectory control mode can be divided into point control and continuous Trajectory control manipulator, etc.

Manipulators are usually used as additional devices for machine tools or other machines, such as loading and unloading and transferring workpieces on automatic machine tools or automatic production lines, and changing tools in machining centers. Generally, there is no independent control device. Some operating devices need to be directly manipulated by humans. For example, the master-slave operator used in the atomic energy sector to handle dangerous goods is often called a manipulator.

The Development Status of Micro-machining Technology

In 1959, Richard P Feynman (the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965) proposed the idea of ​​micromachines. In 1962, the first silicon miniature pressure sensor came out, and the climate developed micro-machines such as gears, gear pumps, pneumatic turbines and couplings with a size of 50-500μm. In 1965, Stanford University developed a silicon brain electrode probe, and later succeeded in scanning tunneling microscopes and miniature sensors. In 1987, the University of California at Berkeley developed a silicon micro-electrostatic machine with a rotor diameter of 60 to 12 μm, showing the potential of using silicon micro-machining technology to manufacture small movable structures and compatible with integrated circuits to manufacture tiny systems.
Micromachines have been highly valued by government departments, business circles, universities and research institutions abroad. In the late 1980s, 15 scientists from MIT, Berkeley, Stanford\AT&T and the United States put forward a national proposal on “Small Machines, Big Opportunities: A Report on Emerging Fields-Microdynamics”, claiming that “Due to microdynamics The urgency of (microsystems) in the United States should take the lead in the competition with other countries in such a new and important technological field.” It is recommended that the central fiscal advance should be US$50 million for five years. Invest and regard aerospace, information and MEMS as the three major points of technological development. NASA invested 100 million US dollars to develop the “Discover microsatellite”.

The National Science Foundation took MEMS as a newly emerging research field and formulated a plan to fund research on micro-electromechanical systems. Since 1998, it has funded MIT. Eight universities including the University of California and Bell Laboratories are engaged in research and development in this field, with annual funding ranging from 1 million and 2 million to 5 million US dollars in 1993. The “Technical Plan of the US Department of Defense” report released in 1994 listed MEMS as a key technology project. The US Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency actively leads and supports MEMS research and military applications. A MEMS standard process line has been established to promote the research and development of new components/devices. The American industry is mainly devoted to the research of sensors, displacement sensors, strain gauges and accelerometers in related fields.

Many institutions have participated in the research of micro-mechanical systems, such as Cornell University, Stanford University, University of California, Berkeley, University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, Old Lenz Demore National Research, etc. The Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center (BSAC) of the University of California, after receiving 15 million yuan funding from the Department of Defense and more than a dozen companies, established an ultra-clean laboratory of 1115 m2 for research and development of MEMS.

In 1991, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan started a 10-year, large-scale research project costing 25 billion yen to develop two prototypes, one for medical treatment, entering the human body for diagnosis and microsurgery, and the other for industrial use. , Carry out repairs to tiny cracks in aircraft engines and atomic energy equipment. Dozens of units including the University of Tsukuba, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tohoku University, Waseda University and Fujitsu Research Institute participated in the program.

European industrialized countries have also successively made key investments in the research and development of micro-systems. Germany started the micro-processing 10-year plan project in 1988. The Ministry of Science and Technology allocated 40,000 marks to support the research of the “micro-system plan” from 1990 to 1993. The microsystem is listed as the focus of scientific and technological development at the beginning of the century. The LIGA process pioneered by Germany has provided new technical means for the development of MEMS and has become the preferred process for the production of three-dimensional structures. The 70 million francs “microsystem and technology” project launched by France in 1993.

The European Community formed the “Multifunctional Microsystem Research Network NEXUS” to jointly coordinate the research of 46 research institutes. Switzerland has also invested in the development of MEMS on the basis of its traditional watchmaking industry and small precision machinery industry. In 1992, the investment was 10 million US dollars. The British government has also formulated a nanoscience plan. 8 projects are listed for research and development in the fields of mechanics, optics and electronics. In order to strengthen Europe’s power to develop MEMS, some European companies have formed MEMS development groups.

At present, a large number of micro-machines or micro-systems have been studied. For example, micro-tweezers with a tip diameter of 5μm can hold a red blood cell, and a micro-pump with a size of 7mm×7mm×2mm can reach a flow rate of 250μl/min. A robotic butterfly flying in a magnetic field, and a miniature inertial unit (MIMU) that integrates a miniature speedometer, a miniature gyroscope, and a signal processing system. Germany created the LIGA process to make cantilever beams, actuators, micro pumps, micro nozzles, humidity, flow sensors and various optical devices.

The California Institute of Technology in the United States glues a considerable number of 1mm microbeams on the aircraft wing surface to control the bending angle to affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft. Mass-produced silicon accelerometers in the United States integrate miniature sensors (mechanical parts) and integrated circuits (electrical signal sources, amplifiers, signal processing and positive detection circuits, etc.) on a silicon chip within a range of 3mm x 3mm. The micro lathe of several centimeters developed in Japan can process micro shafts with an accuracy of 1.5μm.

Mechanical seal installation and use requirements

1) The appropriate type of mechanical seal and material matching must be selected according to the working conditions and host conditions to ensure the normal operation and service life of the mechanical seal.
2) The radial runout tolerance of the shaft (shaft sleeve) where the mechanical seal is installed should be ≤0.04mm, and the axial runout of the rotor should be ≤0.1mm.

3) Install the sealing end cover (or housing) of the stationary ring of the mechanical seal, and the verticality of the positioning end facing the shaft is ≤0.04mm.

4) When the mechanical seal is installed, the shaft (shaft sleeve), seal cavity, seal end cover and mechanical seal must be cleaned to prevent any impurities from entering the seal part.

5) When the temperature of the conveying medium is too high, too low, or contains impurity particles, is flammable, explosive, or toxic, you must refer to the relevant standards of mechanical seals and take corresponding measures such as blocking, washing, cooling, and filtering.

6) When the mechanical seal is installed, it should be properly lubricated. According to the product installation instructions, ensure the installation size of the mechanical seal.

7) The equipment must be filled with medium before operation to prevent dry friction and seal failure.

8) For the mechanical seal with single spring transmission in the catalog, the spring rotation direction should be selected reasonably. Generally, from the stationary ring end, when the shaft rotation is clockwise, the right rotation spring should be selected. Otherwise, choose the left spring.

Mechanical assembly process foundation

1. The concept of assembly
Mechanical products are generally composed of many parts and components. In accordance with the prescribed technical requirements, the process of combining several parts groups into components or parts or combining several components and parts into a product is called assembly.

Mechanical assembly is the last stage in the entire mechanical manufacturing process and occupies a very important position in the manufacturing process. The quality of mechanical products is ultimately guaranteed by assembly work. The quality of parts is the basis of the quality of mechanical products, but the assembly process is not a process of simply combining qualified parts. Even with high-quality parts, low-quality assembly may produce low-quality products; high-quality assembly can assemble high-quality products on the basis of economic precision parts and components.

In recent years, due to the rapid increase in mechanization and automation in blank manufacturing and mechanical processing, the proportion of assembly workload in the manufacturing process has been increasing. Therefore, the technical level and labor productivity of assembly work must be improved to adapt to the development trend of the machinery industry.

For products with more complex structures, in order to ensure assembly quality and assembly efficiency, it is necessary to decompose the product into separate assembly units from the perspective of the assembly process according to the structural characteristics of the product.

Parts are the most basic units that make up a mechanical product. The parts are generally assembled into a composite, component or part before being assembled on the machine.

Composite parts are also called kits, which are made up of a number of parts that are permanently connected or connected and then processed. A component is a combination of several parts and assemblies. The components can perform a certain and complete function in the machine.

Assembly accuracy of mechanical products

The assembly accuracy of mechanical products is the technical requirements that should be met during product assembly, which can be divided into two categories: geometric parameters and physical parameters.

1. Geometrical accuracy requirements

The geometric accuracy requirements include clearance, fit properties, mutual position accuracy and relative motion accuracy, contact quality and so on.

Clearance and fit properties can be unified as dimensional accuracy requirements, which refer to the dimensional distance accuracy between related parts and components.

Mutual position accuracy in assembly includes related parts, parallelism between components, perpendicularity, coaxiality and various runouts, etc. Relative motion accuracy refers to the accuracy of the relative motion direction and relative speed direction between the relative motion of the parts and components in the product. The accuracy of the movement direction is mostly expressed as the parallelism and perpendicularity of the relative movement between zero and components; the relative speed accuracy is also called transmission accuracy, that is, a certain degree of precision must be maintained when the relative movement between components and components is required. The linear motion accuracy or circular motion accuracy of parts and components is the basis of relative motion accuracy.

Contact accuracy refers to the size and distribution of the actual contact area between the contact surfaces.

2. Physically required accuracy

The accuracy of the physical direction requires a lot of content, such as speed, weight, tightening force, static balance, dynamic balance, tightness, friction, vibration, noise, temperature rise, etc., depending on the type and purpose of the specific machine. The content varies.

Basic content of assembly work

Assembly fairness can be done by a series of assembly processes in an ideal order of work. Common basic assembly operations include the following:

1. Cleaning

The purpose of cleaning is to remove oil and mechanical impurities on the surface or inside of parts and components. Common basic cleaning methods include scrubbing, dipping, spraying, ultrasonic cleaning and so on. The elements of the cleaning process are the type of cleaning fluid (commonly used are kerosene, gasoline, lye and various chemical cleaning fluids), process parameters (such as temperature, pressure, time) and cleaning methods. The choice of cleaning process method should be determined according to factors such as the cleaning requirements of the workpiece, the material of the workpiece, the batch size, the nature of the oil and mechanical impurities, and the adhesion. In addition, the workpiece should have a certain intermediate anti-rust ability after cleaning.

The cleaning work is of great significance to ensure and improve the assembly quality of the machine and prolong the service life of the product, especially for the key components of the machine such as bearings, seals, precision parts, and lubrication systems.

2. Connect

There is a lot of connection work during the assembly process. Connection methods can generally be divided into two types: detachable connection and non-detachable connection.

can be disassembled to connect the interconnected parts and components without damaging any parts, and can be reconnected after disassembly. Common detachable connections include threaded connections, key connections and pin connections. Among them, threaded connection is the most widely used. The quality of threaded connection has a great relationship with the assembly process. The tightening force of each bolt, the tightening sequence and tightening of multiple bolts should be reasonably determined according to the shape of the connected parts and components, the distribution and force of the bolts Power balance and other requirements.

Non-detachable connection is not disassembled during the use of connected parts and components. If it is to be disassembled, some parts will often be damaged. Common non-detachable connections include welding, riveting and interference connection, etc., among which interference connection is mostly used for shaft and hole fitting. To realize the interference connection, methods such as press fit, thermal expansion fit and cold shrink fit are commonly used. General machines can use press-fitting method, and important or precise machines are willing to use thermal expansion and cold shrinkage fitting methods.

3. Correction, adjustment and configuration

Calibration refers to the alignment and leveling of the mutual positions of related parts and components. It is generally used in the assembly and general assembly of the base parts of large-scale machinery. The commonly used calibration methods include flat-square calibration, square-square calibration, level calibration, and wire-drawing calibration. , Optical correction and laser correction, etc.

Adjustment refers to the adjustment of the mutual position of related parts. The adjustment can cooperate with the correction to ensure the relative position accuracy of the parts and components. It can also adjust the gap in the motion pair to ensure the motion accuracy.

is used for assigning drilling, reaming, scraping and grinding, etc., which are some additional fitter and machining operations in the assembly process. Scratching is a pliers work on the surface of parts and components, and is mostly used for finishing of the matching surface of the moving pair. The drill and hinge are mostly used for fixed connection. Only after careful correction and adjustment to ensure the accurate geometric relationship of the relevant parts and components can it be matched.

4. Balance

The balance of the rotating body is an important requirement in assembly accuracy, especially for machines with higher rotation elements and higher requirements for stable operation. The requirements for the balance of rotating parts and components are more stringent. Some machines need to be balanced at the working speed after the final assembly of the product.

balance method can be divided into static balance method and dynamic balance method. Static balance method can eliminate static imbalance; dynamic balance method can eliminate force imbalance in addition to static imbalance. The general rotating body can be used as a rigid body for balance, and the one with larger diameter and smaller width can only be used for static balance. The parts and components with relatively large length and diameter need to be dynamically balanced. Among them, the rotating body whose working speed is more than 75% of the first-order critical speed should be dynamically balanced as a flexible rotating body.

For the unbalanced quality of the rotating body, the quality can be added by repair welding, riveting, cementing or threaded connection; the quality can be removed by means of drilling, milling, grinding, filing, scraping, etc.; the balance can also be changed in the prefabricated balance groove The location and number of blocks.

5. Acceptance test

In the assembly, component and final assembly process, intermediate inspections are often required before and after important processes. After the final assembly is completed, a comprehensive inspection and experiment of the product shall be carried out in accordance with the required technical standards and regulations.

The content and methods of inspection and experiment of various mechanical products are different. The acceptance work of metal cutting machine tools usually includes machine tool geometric accuracy inspection, dry running test, load test, work accuracy inspection, noise and temperature rise inspection, etc. The inspection content of automobile engine generally includes important fitting clearance, inspection of position accuracy and bonding condition between parts and so on. The final assembly of large power machinery is generally carried out on a special test bench, with detailed test procedures.

Main points of use and maintenance of pneumatic tools

Broadly speaking, a pneumatic tool is mainly a tool that uses compressed air to drive a pneumatic motor to output kinetic energy to the outside. According to its basic working mode, it can be divided into: 1) rotary type (eccentric movable blade type). 2) reciprocating type (Volume piston type) General pneumatic tools are mainly composed of power output part, operation form conversion part, intake and exhaust path part, operation start and stop control part, tool housing and other main parts. Of course, the operation of pneumatic tools must also have energy supply parts, Air filtration and air pressure adjustment parts and tool accessories.
1. Power output part: It is one of the main components of pneumatic tools, mainly composed of air motor and power output gear. It relies on high-pressure compressed air to blow the motor blades to make the motor rotor rotate, output rotational movement externally, and pass The gear drives the entire operation form to transform part of the movement. According to whether the stator and rotor are concentric, pneumatic horse air motors can be divided into concentric motors and eccentric motors. According to the number of air intake holes, they can be divided into single air inlet motors, double air inlet motors, and multiple air inlet motors. No matter what form of air motor, it relies on compressed air to blow the motor blades to drive the rotor to rotate. When the motor blades rotate at high speed, they always rub against the inner wall of the stator. It is the most common vulnerable part in the motor. The quality of compressed air and whether the compressed air contains lubricating oil molecules are very demanding;

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2. Operation form conversion part: It mainly converts the rotary motion output by the motor. In the automobile manufacturing industry, due to the many ways of threaded connection, most of them are rotary motion, of course, there are also linear reciprocating motions. For different types of pneumatic tools, the operation form conversion part is mainly divided into mechanical clutches and planetary gear sets, friction plate clutches and planetary gear sets, hydraulic cylinders, torsion rods and hammer block sets. The above components are all important components based on rotary motion, which determine the torque, speed, and tightening accuracy of the pneumatic tightening tool. Due to its constant clutch, pressure or torque change, its component parts Vulnerable to damage;

3. Inlet and exhaust path: Obviously, the inlet and exhaust path are related channels for compressed air to enter and exit, and are the energy supply system that guarantees the normal movement of the motor;

4, the movement start and stop control part, that is, the usual pneumatic switch, because it is in direct contact with the operator and external objects at all times, and many engineering plastic products, it is prone to damage;

5. Energy supply part: Compressed air is mainly formed by air compressors compressing the atmosphere, which is transported by compressed air pipes to related gas and electricity, and is pulsating;

6. ​​Air filtration and air pressure adjustment part: As compressed air is usually transported through pipes made of seamless steel pipes, during long-term use, rust on the inner wall, moisture and dust in the compressed air will continue to form. If such compressed air enters the air motor directly without any treatment, the life of the motor will be greatly shortened, resulting in insufficient power output of the entire tool, and unstable, easily causing damage to the motor and other parts. Between the compressed air transported by the pipeline and the pneumatic tools, compressed air filtering and regulating devices must be installed, and the pneumatic triplex undertakes this task. Pneumatic triple parts are mainly composed of barometers, filters, lubricators, pressure regulators and other parts. Among them, the filter has a built-in filter element, which should be maintained and cleaned and replaced regularly after a period of use;

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7. Tool accessories: The tool accessories here refer to the tools installed on the body of the pneumatic tool that directly contact the workpiece. The pneumatic triplex undertakes this task. Pneumatic triple parts are mainly composed of barometers, filters, lubricators, pressure regulators, etc. The filter element is built-in in the filter. After a period of use, it must be maintained and cleaned and replaced regularly; such compressed air does not undergo any treatment , Enter the air motor directly, it will greatly shorten the life of the motor, resulting in insufficient power output of the whole tool, and unstable, easy to cause damage to the motor and other parts. For this reason, the compressed air transported by the pipeline to the air tool In between, compressed air filtering and adjusting devices must be installed, including various pneumatic sleeves, extension rods, adapters, cutter heads, etc.;

The importance of lubrication for imported bearings

The influence of lubrication on the performance of imported bearings can be divided into the following aspects:
1. The first is to lubricate each part of the imported bearing to reduce the friction and wear of the imported bearing;

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2, make the rolling contact surface of the imported bearing often form an appropriate oil film to extend the fatigue life of the imported bearing;

3. The heat generated by friction or other reasons inside the imported bearing is taken away by lubrication;

4. Imported bearings can be lubricated to prevent rust and dust.

The two main lubrication methods of imported bearings are grease lubrication and oil lubrication

Grease lubrication has a sealing method in which grease is pre-filled in the sealed bearing, and a filling and grease method in which an appropriate amount of grease is filled in the shell and refilled or replaced at regular intervals. In addition, for machines with multiple bearings that need to be lubricated, a centralized grease supply method in which pipes are connected to each lubrication point is also used. Grease lubrication can be filled with grease for a long time without replenishment, and the structure of the sealing device is relatively simple, so it is widely used. Oil lubrication is relatively simple. Frequent lubrication can increase the service life of imported bearings.

Look at the coiling machine from the forming principle of the coiled spring

Look at the coil spring machine from the forming principle of the coil spring
When the spring material passes through the straightening mechanism and the feeding mechanism and hits the slot at the front end of the ejector rod, the spring material is forced to bend and deform. The spring coil is wound into three friction points held by the material. For a single ejector spring coiling machine, the three friction points are the tangent points between the spring material and the wire plate, mandrel, and ejector rod; for a double ejector spring coiling machine, the three friction points are the spring material and the wire plate. , The tangent point where two curve gauges touch. In the process of bending the spring material into a loop, the steel wire will contact the inclined surface of the pitch block.

When the pitch change mechanism of the spring coiling machine moves the pitch block along the axis of the spring winding forming, the pitch of the helical compression spring is made. When coiling a helical compression spring parallel head (support ring) or a helical extension spring, the pitch block retracts to the back, and when the spring is coiled, the next coil is formed against the previously coiled coil. When a spring is rolled, the feeding mechanism stops feeding, and the cutter control machine forces the cutter to cut the spring. Such reciprocating operation realizes the automatic forming of the spring.

The curve gauge can be moved back and forth under the control of the spring diameter changing mechanism to adjust the diameter of the spring or to roll the variable diameter coil spring. When rolling a reducing coil spring, the corresponding reducing cam must be used. As the spring material is continuously rolled into a coil, the diameter-reducing cam also rotates correspondingly to control the ejector rod to move appropriately, and the required diameter-reducing coil spring is rolled.

When coil compression springs with variable pitch (commonly known as unequal pitch) or other spiral springs are to be rolled, a variable pitch cam is required; under the action of the variable pitch cam, a set of swing rod mechanism pushes the pitch block to move forward and backward, In order to realize the coiling of variable-pitch springs.

It can be seen from the working principle of the spring coiling machine: the advantage of the single ejector spring coiling machine is that it only needs to adjust a curve gauge, the machine tool adjustment time is less when changing the spring varieties, and it can coil higher initial stress. The spiral tension spring is more convenient when the left and right spiral springs are exchanged; the advantage of the double ejector spring coiling machine is that the mandrel no longer becomes a friction point of the formed coil, but only plays an auxiliary role when cutting the steel wire.

When producing springs of different diameters, there is no need to frequently exchange mandrels. In addition, the center angle corresponding to the three friction points of the double ejector spring coiling machine is also larger than that of the single ejector. Therefore, it is more convenient and stable to wind a relatively large spring. However, the double ejector spring coiling machine is very troublesome when the left and right coil springs are exchanged, and the entire outer diameter changing mechanism needs to be modified.

There are many factors that affect the quality of coil springs, such as the tensile strength, elongation, elastic modulus, yield ratio, dimensional accuracy grade and surface condition of the material, the accuracy of machine tools, auxiliary tools and metal wires. The friction condition of the contact part, the accuracy of the feeding length, the winding speed and the technical level of the operator, etc.