Titanium alloy cutting performance

Cutting characteristics
When the hardness of titanium alloy is greater than HB350, cutting is particularly difficult, and when the hardness is less than HB300, it is prone to sticking and cutting is difficult. But the hardness of titanium alloy is only one aspect that is difficult to cut. The key lies in the influence of the combination of chemical, physical and mechanical properties of titanium alloy on its machinability. Titanium alloy has the following cutting characteristics:

(1) Small deformation coefficient: This is a significant feature of titanium alloy cutting processing, and the deformation coefficient is less than or close to 1. The sliding friction distance of chips on the rake face is greatly increased, which accelerates tool wear.

(2) High cutting temperature: Because the thermal conductivity of titanium alloy is very small (only equivalent to 1/5 ~ 1/7 of 45 steel), the contact length between the chip and the rake face is extremely short, and the heat generated during cutting is not easy to transfer It is concentrated in a small area near the cutting area and the cutting edge, and the cutting temperature is very high. Under the same cutting conditions, the cutting temperature can be more than twice as high as when cutting 45 steel.

(3) The cutting force per unit area is large: the main cutting force is about 20% smaller than that during steel cutting. Because the contact length between the chip and the rake face is extremely short, the cutting force per unit contact area is greatly increased, which is likely to cause chipping. At the same time, due to the small modulus of elasticity of titanium alloy, it is prone to bending deformation under the action of radial force during processing, causing vibration, increasing tool wear and affecting the accuracy of parts. Therefore, the process system is required to have better rigidity. Supreme enterprise

(4) Chilling phenomenon is serious: due to the high chemical activity of titanium, it is easy to absorb oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form a hard and brittle skin at high cutting temperature; at the same time, plastic deformation during cutting will also cause surface hardening . Chilling phenomenon not only reduces the fatigue strength of parts, but also aggravates tool wear, which is a very important feature when cutting titanium alloys.

(5) The tool is easy to wear: After the blank is processed by stamping, forging, hot rolling and other methods, a hard and brittle uneven skin is formed, which can easily cause chipping, making the removal of the hard skin the most difficult process in titanium alloy processing. In addition, due to the strong chemical affinity of titanium alloy to tool materials, the tool is prone to bond wear under the conditions of high cutting temperature and high cutting force per unit area. When turning titanium alloy, sometimes the wear of the rake face is even more serious than that of the flank; when the feed rate f<0.1 mm/r, the wear mainly occurs on the flank; when f>0.2 mm/r, the front The blade face will be worn; when using carbide tools for fine turning and semi-finishing turning, the wear of the flank face is more suitable for VBmax<0.4 mm.

Tool material

Cutting titanium alloy should start from the two aspects of lowering cutting temperature and reducing adhesion. It is suitable to choose tool materials with good red hardness, high bending strength, good thermal conductivity, and poor affinity with titanium alloys. YG cemented carbide is more suitable. Due to the poor heat resistance of high-speed steel, tools made of cemented carbide should be used as much as possible. Commonly used cemented carbide tool materials include YG8, YG3, YG6X, YG6A, 813, 643, YS2T and YD15.

Coated inserts and YT cemented carbide will have a violent affinity with titanium alloys, which will aggravate the bonding and wear of the tool, and are not suitable for cutting titanium alloys; for complex and multi-edge tools, high-vanadium high-speed steel (such as W12Cr4V4Mo ), high-cobalt high-speed steel (such as W2Mo9Cr4VCo8) or aluminum high-speed steel (such as W6Mo5Cr4V2Al, M10Mo4Cr4V3Al) and other tool materials, suitable for making drills, reamers, end mills, broaches, taps and other tools for cutting titanium alloys.

Using diamond and cubic boron nitride as tools for cutting titanium alloys can achieve significant results. For example, the cutting speed can reach 200 m/min under the condition of emulsion cooling with natural diamond tools; if the cutting fluid is not used, the allowable cutting speed is only 100 m/min at the same amount of wear.

Precautions

In the process of cutting titanium alloy, the matters that should be paid attention to are:

(1) Due to the small modulus of elasticity of titanium alloy, the clamping deformation and force deformation of the workpiece during processing will reduce the processing accuracy of the workpiece; the clamping force should not be too large when the workpiece is installed, and auxiliary support can be added when necessary.

(2) If a cutting fluid containing chlorine is used, it will decompose and release hydrogen at high temperatures during the cutting process, which will be absorbed by titanium and cause hydrogen embrittlement; it may also cause high-temperature stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys.

(3) The chloride in the cutting fluid may also decompose or volatilize toxic gas during use. Safety protection measures should be taken during use, otherwise it should not be used; after cutting, the parts should be thoroughly cleaned with a chlorine-free cleaning agent in time to remove chlorine residues Things.

(4) It is forbidden to use lead or zinc-based alloy tools and fixtures to contact titanium alloys, and copper, tin, cadmium and their alloys are also prohibited.

(5) All tools, fixtures or other devices in contact with the titanium alloy must be clean; the cleaned titanium alloy parts must be protected from grease or fingerprint contamination, otherwise it may cause salt (sodium chloride) stress corrosion in the future.

(6) Under normal circumstances, there is no risk of ignition when cutting titanium alloys. Only in micro-cutting, the small chips cut off will ignite and burn. In order to avoid fire, in addition to pouring a large amount of cutting fluid, it is also necessary to prevent the accumulation of chips on the machine tool. The tool should be replaced immediately after being blunt, or the cutting speed should be reduced, and the feed rate should be increased to increase the chip thickness. In case of fire, fire extinguishing equipment such as talcum powder, limestone powder, dry sand should be used to extinguish the fire. Carbon tetrachloride and carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are strictly prohibited, and watering is prohibited, because water can accelerate the combustion and even cause hydrogen explosion.

Titanium alloy features:

Titanium has a relatively low density of 4.5g/cm3, which is only 60% of iron. It is usually called light metal with aluminum and magnesium, and its corresponding titanium alloys, aluminum alloys, and magnesium alloys are called light alloys. Many countries in the world have recognized the importance of titanium alloy materials, and have successively conducted research and development on titanium alloy materials, and have been practically applied. Titanium is an important structural metal developed in the 1950s. Titanium alloys are widely used in various fields because of their high specific strength, good corrosion resistance, high heat resistance, and easy welding. High strength and easy welding are beneficial to the manufacture of golf club heads.

The first practical titanium alloy was Ti-6Al (aluminum)-4V (alum) alloy successfully developed by the United States in 1954. Ti-6Al-4V alloy has reached a good level in terms of heat resistance, strength, plasticity, toughness, formability, weldability, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The amount of Ti-6Al-4V alloy used has accounted for 75-85% of all titanium alloys. Many other alloys can be regarded as modifications of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. At present, there are hundreds of titanium alloys developed in the world, and there are 20 to 30 kinds of the most famous alloys, for example, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, Ti-2Al-2.5Zr, Ti -32Mo, Ti-Mo-Ni, Ti-Pd, Ti-811, Ti-6242, Ti-1023, Ti-10-5-3, Ti-1100, BT9, BT20, IMI829, IMI834, etc.; for ball The rods are 10-2-3, SP700, 15-3-3-3 (commonly referred to as β titanium), 22-4, DAT51.